2016 Mar 5;247:49-54. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2016.01.018. Epub 2016 Jan 28.

Phycocyanin ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in mice: Involved in insulin signaling pathway and GK expression.

Ou Y1Ren Z2Wang J2Yang X2.

Abstract

The therapeutic potential and molecular mechanism of phycocyanin from Spirulina on alloxan-induced diabetes mice was investigated. In the experiment, 4-week treatment of phycocyanin at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight in alloxan-induced diabetes mice resulted in improved metrics in comparison with alloxan-induced diabetes group. These metrics include blood glucose levels, glycosylated serum protein (GSP), glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) and fasting serum insulin (FINS) levels. As its molecular mode of action, phycocyanin leads to the increase of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and the decrease of IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, also accompany with increased level of Akt phosphorylation on Ser473 in the liver and pancreas in diabetic mice. In addition, phycocyanin treatment enhanced the glucokinase (GK) level in the liver and pancreas, and the glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) level in the liver in diabetic mice. The results suggest that phycocyanin ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in mice by activating insulin signaling pathway and GK expression in pancreas and liver in diabetic mice.

KEYWORDS:

Alloxan; Diabetes; Glucokinase; Glucokinase regulatory protein; Insulin signaling pathway; Phycocyanin

 

PMID:
 
26827782
 
DOI:
 
10.1016/j.cbi.2016.01.018

Sci Rep. 2016 Apr 12;6:24253. doi: 10.1038/srep24253.

 2016 Jan 5;5(1):57-64. doi: 10.5455/jice.20151230055930.

Spirulina versicolor improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats.

Abstract

AIM:

The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina versicolor extract in fructose-fed rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. versicolor extract for 4 weeks.

RESULTS:

At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed a significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract reversed these alterations.

CONCLUSION:

S. versicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats.

KEYWORDS:

DiabetesSpirulina; fructose; inflammation; insulin resistance; oxidative stress

 

PMID:
 
27069726
 
PMCID:
 
PMC4805148
 
DOI:
 
10.5455/jice.20151230055930

 

 

Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality.

Chen YH1,2, Chang GK1, Kuo SM1, Huang SY1,2, Hu IC3, Lo YL1, Shih SR1,4,2,5.

Author information

 

Abstract

 

Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that the Spirulina extract inhibited viral plaque formation in a broad range of influenza viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains. Spirulina extract was found to act at an early stage of infection to reduce virus yields in cells and improve survival in influenza-infected mice, with inhibition of influenza hemagglutination identified as one of the mechanisms involved. Together, these results suggest that the cold water extract of Spirulina might serve as a safe and effective therapeutic agent to manage influenza outbreaks, and further clinical investigation may be warranted.

J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Jun 7. [Epub ahead of print]

Selenium-Containing Phycocyanin from Se-Enriched Spirulina platensis Reduces Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

Zhu C1, Ling Q2, Cai Z2, Wang Y2, Zhang Y2, Hoffmann PR2,3, Zheng W4, Zhou T2, Huang Z2.

Author information

Abstract

 

Selenium (Se) plays an important role in fine-tuning immune responses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves hyperresponsive immunity of the digestive tract, and a low Se level might aggravate IBD progression; however, the beneficial effects of natural Se-enriched diets on IBD remain unknown. Previously, we developed high-yield Se-enriched Spirulina platensis (Se-SP) as an excellent organic nutritional Se source. Here we prepared Se-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) from Se-SP and observed that Se-PC administration effectively reduced the extent of colitis in mouse induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Supplementation with Se-PC resulted in significant protective effects, including mitigation of body weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and colonic inflammatory damage. The anti-inflammatory effects of Se-PC supplementation were found to involve modulation of cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10. Mechanistically, Se-PC inhibited the activation of macrophages by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which is involved in the transcription of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results together suggest potential benefits of Se-PC as a functional Se supplement to reduce the symptoms of IBD.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Jan;137(1):197-203.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.07.027. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Calcium spirulan derived from Spirulina platensis inhibits herpes simplex virus 1 attachment to humankeratinocytes and protects against herpes labialis.

Mader J1, Gallo A2, Schommartz T2, Handke W2, Nagel CH2, Günther P3, Brune W4, Reich K5.

Author information

1Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology, Hamburg, Germany; Dermatologikum Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

2Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology, Hamburg, Germany.

3Ocean Pharma GmbH, Reinbek, Germany.

4Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology, Hamburg, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: wolfram.brune@hpi.uni-hamburg.de.

5Dermatologikum Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: kreich@dermatologikum.de.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 are highly prevalent in populations worldwide and cause recurrent oral lesions in up to 40% of infected subjects.

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated the antiviral activity of a defined Spirulina platensis microalga extract and of purified calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a sulfated polysaccharide contained therein.

METHODS:

The inhibitory effects of HSV-1 were assessed by using a plaque reduction assay and quantitative PCR in a susceptible mammalian epithelial cell line and confirmed in human keratinocytes. Time-of-addition and attachment experiments and fluorescence detection of the HSV-1 tegument protein VP16 were used to analyze the mechanism of HSV-1 inhibition. Effects of Ca-SP on Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 replication and uptake of the ORF45 tegument protein were tested in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. In an observational trial the prophylactic effects of topically applied Ca-SP were compared with those of systemic and topical nucleoside analogues in 198 volunteers with recurrent herpes labialis receiving permanent lip makeup.

RESULTS:

Ca-SP inhibited HSV-1 infection in vitro with a potency at least comparable to that of acyclovir by blocking viral attachment and penetration into host cells. Ca-SP also inhibited entry of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8. In the clinical model of herpes exacerbation, the prophylactic effect of a Ca-SP and microalgae extract containing cream was superior to that of acyclovir cream.

CONCLUSION:

These data indicate a potential clinical use of Ca-SP containing Spirulina species extract for the prophylactic treatment of herpes labialis and suggest possible activity of Ca-SP against infections caused by other herpesviruses.

Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Herpes simplex virus 1; Kaposi sarcoma; Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8; Spirulina microalgae; calcium spirulan; herpes labialis; keratinocytes

 

Nutr J. 2015 Jul 21;14:70. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0058-4.

Impact of daily supplementation of Spirulina platensis on the immune system of naïve HIV-1 patients in Cameroon: a 12-months single blind, randomized, multicenter trial.

Ngo-Matip ME1, Pieme CA2, Azabji-Kenfack M3, Moukette BM4, Korosky E5, Stefanini P6, Ngogang JY7, Mbofung CM8.

Author information

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Micronutrient deficiencies occur early in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections they have reverse effects on the nutritional status. The diet supplementation with a natural nutraceutical rich in proteins and micronutrient like Spirulina platensis, may be effective and efficient in delaying HIV disease progression by frequently reported improvement in immune response.

METHODS:

A prospective single-blind, randomized, multicenter study conducted on 320 HIV-1 ARV-naïve participants for 12 months. Participants received either S. platensis supplementation and standard care or standard care and local balanced diet without S. platenis. Selected hematological and biochemical as well as CD4 count cells, viral load copies were assessed at three separate times.

RESULTS:

Among the 169 ART-naïve participants enrolled in the study, the female was mostly represented (67.1%). The significant increase of CD4 count cells (596.32-614.92 cells count) and significant decrease of viral load levels (74.7 × 10(3)-30.87 × 10(3) copies/mL) of the patients who received a supplementation of S. platensis was found after 6 months of treatment. Haemoglobin level was also significantly higher in the same group while the fasting blood glucose concentration decreased after 12 months compared to control.

CONCLUSION:

A daily supplementation with S. platensis to diet combined with a reasonable balanced diet has significantly increased the CD4 cells and reduced the viral load after 6 months. Further studies are recommended among a large specific group of people infected by the HIV in order to investigate the mechanisms involved on the effect of S. platensis on immune system.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Sep 2. pii: S0091-6749(15)01033-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.07.027. [Epub ahead of print]

Calcium spirulan derived from Spirulina platensis inhibits herpes simplex virus 1 attachment to humankeratinocytes and protects against herpes labialis.

Mader J1, Gallo A2, Schommartz T2, Handke W2, Nagel CH2, Günther P3, Brune W4, Reich K5.

Author information

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 are highly prevalent in populations worldwide and cause recurrent oral lesions in up to 40% of infected subjects.

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated the antiviral activity of a defined Spirulina platensis microalga extract and of purified calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a sulfated polysaccharide contained therein.

METHODS:

The inhibitory effects of HSV-1 were assessed by using a plaque reduction assay and quantitative PCR in a susceptible mammalian epithelial cell line and confirmed in human keratinocytes. Time-of-addition and attachment experiments and fluorescence detection of the HSV-1 tegument protein VP16 were used to analyze the mechanism of HSV-1 inhibition. Effects of Ca-SP on Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 replication and uptake of the ORF45 tegument protein were tested in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. In an observational trial the prophylactic effects of topically applied Ca-SP were compared with those of systemic and topical nucleoside analogues in 198 volunteers with recurrent herpes labialis receiving permanent lip makeup.

RESULTS:

Ca-SP inhibited HSV-1 infection in vitro with a potency at least comparable to that of acyclovir by blocking viral attachment and penetration into host cells. Ca-SP also inhibited entry of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8. In the clinical model of herpes exacerbation, the prophylactic effect of a Ca-SP and microalgae extract containing cream was superior to that of acyclovir cream.

CONCLUSION:

These data indicate a potential clinical use of Ca-SP containing Spirulina species extract for the prophylactic treatment of herpes labialis and suggest possible activity of Ca-SP against infections caused by other herpesviruses.

Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Herpes simplex virus 1; Kaposi sarcoma; Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8; Spirulina microalgae; calcium spirulan; herpes labialis; keratinocytes

 

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015 Nov 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Comparative Neuroregenerative Effects of C-Phycocyanin and IFN-Beta in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis in Mice.

Pentón-Rol G1, Lagumersindez-Denis N2, Muzio L3, Bergami A4, Furlan R5, Fernández-Massó JR6, Nazabal-Galvez M7, Llópiz-Arzuaga A8, Herrera-Rolo T9,Veliz-Rodriguez T10, Polentarutti N11, Marín-Prida J12, Raíces-Cruz I13, Valenzuela-Silva C14, Teixeira MM15, Pentón-Arias E16.

Author information

Abstract

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) therapies approved so far are unable to effectively reverse the chronic phase of the disease or improve the remyelination process. Here our aim is to evaluate the effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-Pc), a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties, in a chronic model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. C-Pc (2, 4 or 8 mg/kg i.p.) or IFN-beta (2000 IU, s.c.) was administered daily once a day or every other day, respectively, starting at disease onset, which differ among EAE mice between 11 and 15 days postinduction. Histological and immunohistochemistry (anti-Mac-3, anti-CD3 and anti-APP) assessments were performed in spinal cord in the postinduction time. Global gene expression in the brain was analyzed with the Illumina Mouse WG-6_V2 BeadChip microarray and the expression of particular genes, assessed by qPCR using the Fast SYBR Green RT-PCR Master Mix. Oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, peroxidation potential, CAT/SOD ratio and GSH) were determined spectrophoto-metrically. Results showed that C-Pc ameliorates the clinical deterioration of animals, an effect that expresses the reduction of the inflammatory infiltrates invading the spinal cord tissue, the axonal preservation and the down-regulation of IL-17 expression in brain tissue and serum. C-Pc and IFN-beta improved the redox status in mice subjected to EAE, while microarray analysis showed that both treatments shared a common subset of differentially expressed genes, although they also differentially modulated another subset of genes. Specifically, C-Pc mainly modulated the expression of genes related to remyelination, gliogenesis and axon-glia processes. Taken together, our results indicate that C-Pc has significant therapeutic effects against EAE, mediated by the dynamic regulation of multiple biological processes.

 Invest Dermatol. 2014 Apr 14. doi: 10.1038/jid.2014.188. [Epub ahead of print]

Inhibitory Effects of Dietary Spirulina platensis on UVB-Induced Skin Inflammatory Responses and Carcinogenesis.

Yogianti F1, Kunisada M2, Nakano E2, Ono R2, Sakumi K3, Oka S3, Nakabeppu Y3, Nishigori C2.

Author information

11] Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Related, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan [2] Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

2Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Related, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.

3Division of Neurofunctional Genomics, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyusyu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species produced in response to UVR are important in skin tumor development. We have previously reported that deficiency of the Ogg1 gene, encoding the repair enzyme for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), increases skin tumor incidence in mice upon repetitive UVB exposure and modulation of UVB-induced inflammatory response. Spirulina platensis is used as a human food supplement because it contains abundant nutritional and antioxidant components. Therefore, we investigated the inhibitory effects of S. platensis on UVB-induced skin tumor development in Ogg1 knockout-(KO) mice and the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Dietary S. platensis suppressed tumor induction and development in both genotypes compared with our previous data without S. platensis. Induction of erythema and ear swelling, one of the hallmarks of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, was suppressed in the skin of Ogg1-KO mice and albino hairless mice fed with dietary S. platensis. Compared with untreated mice, S. platensis-administered mice showed significantly reduced 8-oxoG formation in the skin after UVB exposure. Moreover, we found that S. platensis effectively downregulated the signal proteins p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase after UVB exposure especially in Ogg1-KO mice. Our results suggest that S. platensis exerts antitumor effects against UVB irradiation in the skin through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 29 May 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.188.

 

 

 

Ann Hepatol. 2014 Mar-Apr;13(2):273-83.

Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds.

Koníčková R1, Vaňková K1, Vaníková J1, Váňová K1, Muchová L1, Subhanová I1, Zadinová M2, Zelenka J3, Dvořák A1, Kolář M4, Strnad H4, Rimpelová S5, Ruml T5, J Wong R6, Vítek L7.

Author information

 

Abstract

Spirulina platensis is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement because of its hypocholesterolemic properties. Among other bioactive substances, it is also rich in tetrapyrrolic compounds closely related to bilirubin molecule, a potent antioxidant and anti-proliferative agent. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible anticancer effects of S. platensis and S. platensis-derived tetrapyrroles using an experimental model of pancreatic cancer. The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components [phycocyanobilin (PCB) and chlorophyllin, a surrogate molecule for chlorophyll A] were tested on several human pancreatic cancer cell lines and xenotransplanted nude mice. The effects of experimental therapeutics on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione redox status were also evaluated. Compared to untreated cells, experimental therapeutics significantly decreased proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.16 g•L-1 [S. platensis], 60 μM [PCB], and 125 μM [chlorophyllin], p<0.05). The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis were also shown in vivo, where inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth was evidenced since the third day of treatment (p < 0.05). All tested compounds decreased generation of mitochondrial ROS and glutathione redox status (p = 0.0006; 0.016; and 0.006 for S. platensis, PCB, and chlorophyllin, respectively). In conclusion, S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components substantially decreased the proliferation of experimental pancreatic cancer. These data support a chemopreventive role of this edible alga. Furthermore, it seems that dietary supplementation with this alga might enhance systemic pool of tetrapyrroles, known to be higher in subjects with Gilbert syndrome.

PMID:

 

24552870

 

[PubMed - in process]

J Invest Dermatol. 2014 Apr 14. doi: 10.1038/jid.2014.188. [Epub ahead of print]

Inhibitory Effects of Dietary Spirulina platensis on UVB-Induced Skin Inflammatory Responses and Carcinogenesis.

Author information

  • 11] Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Related, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan [2] Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
  • 2Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Related, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.
  • 3Division of Neurofunctional Genomics, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyusyu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species produced in response to UVR are important in skin tumor development. We have previously reported that deficiency of the Ogg1 gene, encoding the repair enzyme for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), increases skin tumor incidence in mice upon repetitive UVB exposure and modulation of UVB-induced inflammatory response. Spirulina platensis is used as a human food supplement because it contains abundant nutritional and antioxidant components. Therefore, we investigated the inhibitory effects of S. platensis on UVB-induced skin tumor development in Ogg1 knockout-(KO) mice and the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Dietary S. platensis suppressed tumor induction and development in both genotypes compared with our previous data without S. platensis. Induction of erythema and ear swelling, one of the hallmarks of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, was suppressed in the skin of Ogg1-KO mice and albino hairless mice fed with dietary S. platensis. Compared with untreated mice, S. platensis-administered mice showed significantly reduced 8-oxoG formation in the skin after UVB exposure. Moreover, we found that S. platensis effectively downregulated the signal proteins p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase after UVB exposure especially in Ogg1-KO mice. Our results suggest that S. platensis exerts antitumor effects against UVB irradiation in the skin through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 29 May 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.188.

 
 
 
Ann Hepatol. 2014 Mar-Apr;13(2):273-83.

Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds.

Abstract

Spirulina platensis is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement because of its hypocholesterolemic properties. Among other bioactive substances, it is also rich in tetrapyrrolic compounds closely related to bilirubin molecule, a potent antioxidant and anti-proliferative agent. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible anticancer effects of S. platensis and S. platensis-derived tetrapyrroles using an experimental model of pancreatic cancer. The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components [phycocyanobilin (PCB) and chlorophyllin, a surrogate molecule for chlorophyll A] were tested on several human pancreatic cancer cell lines and xenotransplanted nude mice. The effects of experimental therapeutics on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione redox status were also evaluated. Compared to untreated cells, experimental therapeutics significantly decreased proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.16 g•L-1 [S. platensis], 60 μM [PCB], and 125 μM [chlorophyllin], p<0.05). The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis were also shown in vivo, where inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth was evidenced since the third day of treatment (p < 0.05). All tested compounds decreased generation of mitochondrial ROS and glutathione redox status (p = 0.0006; 0.016; and 0.006 for S. platensis, PCB, and chlorophyllin, respectively). In conclusion, S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components substantially decreased the proliferation of experimental pancreatic cancer. These data support a chemopreventive role of this edible alga. Furthermore, it seems that dietary supplementation with this alga might enhance systemic pool of tetrapyrroles, known to be higher in subjects with Gilbert syndrome.

PMID:
 
24552870
 
[PubMed - in process]
J Invest Dermatol. 2014 Apr 14. doi: 10.1038/jid.2014.188. [Epub ahead of print]

Inhibitory Effects of Dietary Spirulina platensis on UVB-Induced Skin Inflammatory Responses and Carcinogenesis.

Author information

  • 11] Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Related, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan [2] Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
  • 2Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Related, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.
  • 3Division of Neurofunctional Genomics, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyusyu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species produced in response to UVR are important in skin tumor development. We have previously reported that deficiency of the Ogg1 gene, encoding the repair enzyme for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), increases skin tumor incidence in mice upon repetitive UVB exposure and modulation of UVB-induced inflammatory response. Spirulina platensis is used as a human food supplement because it contains abundant nutritional and antioxidant components. Therefore, we investigated the inhibitory effects of S. platensis on UVB-induced skin tumor development in Ogg1 knockout-(KO) mice and the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Dietary S. platensis suppressed tumor induction and development in both genotypes compared with our previous data without S. platensis. Induction of erythema and ear swelling, one of the hallmarks of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, was suppressed in the skin of Ogg1-KO mice and albino hairless mice fed with dietary S. platensis. Compared with untreated mice, S. platensis-administered mice showed significantly reduced 8-oxoG formation in the skin after UVB exposure. Moreover, we found that S. platensis effectively downregulated the signal proteins p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase after UVB exposure especially in Ogg1-KO mice. Our results suggest that S. platensis exerts antitumor effects against UVB irradiation in the skin through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 29 May 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.188.

 
 
 
Ann Hepatol. 2014 Mar-Apr;13(2):273-83.

Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds.

Abstract

Spirulina platensis is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement because of its hypocholesterolemic properties. Among other bioactive substances, it is also rich in tetrapyrrolic compounds closely related to bilirubin molecule, a potent antioxidant and anti-proliferative agent. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible anticancer effects of S. platensis and S. platensis-derived tetrapyrroles using an experimental model of pancreatic cancer. The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components [phycocyanobilin (PCB) and chlorophyllin, a surrogate molecule for chlorophyll A] were tested on several human pancreatic cancer cell lines and xenotransplanted nude mice. The effects of experimental therapeutics on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione redox status were also evaluated. Compared to untreated cells, experimental therapeutics significantly decreased proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.16 g•L-1 [S. platensis], 60 μM [PCB], and 125 μM [chlorophyllin], p<0.05). The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis were also shown in vivo, where inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth was evidenced since the third day of treatment (p < 0.05). All tested compounds decreased generation of mitochondrial ROS and glutathione redox status (p = 0.0006; 0.016; and 0.006 for S. platensis, PCB, and chlorophyllin, respectively). In conclusion, S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components substantially decreased the proliferation of experimental pancreatic cancer. These data support a chemopreventive role of this edible alga. Furthermore, it seems that dietary supplementation with this alga might enhance systemic pool of tetrapyrroles, known to be higher in subjects with Gilbert syndrome.

PMID:
 
24552870
 
[PubMed - in process]
J Clin Diagn Res. 2013 Dec;7(12):3048-50. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/7085.3849. Epub 2013 Dec 15.

Spirulina and pentoxyfilline - a novel approach for treatment of oral submucous fibrosis.

Abstract

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis is a habit associated insidious precancerous condition of the oral cavity commonly found in Asian countries. Many treatment modalities have been attempted in treating the condition apart from steroids which have been the main stay. Hence the present study was designed to assess the efficacy of spirulina and pentoxyfilline and also to compare them in oral submucous fibrosis. Material and Methods: Fourty Patients with clinico-histological diagnosis of oral sub mucous fibrosis were selected and divided into two groups with 20 in each group by simple randomization method. Group I received Pentoxyfilline and Group II Spirulina for period of 3 months. The efficacy was assessed by parameters like mouth opening, burning sensation and tongue protrusion using vernier caliper, visual analog scale and a metric scale respectively along with the side effects. Results: Student's t-test was applied to obtain the results. Both Pentoxyfilline and Spirulina groups showed statistically significant results (p=0.000) in all the three parameters namely mouth opening, burning sensation and tongue protrusion. On comparing both the drugs statistically insignificant results were obtained for mouth opening (p=0.35) and tongue protrusion (p=0.25) but statistically significant difference was seen in subjective parameter i.e burning sensation (p=0.04). Side effects like bloating of stomach, nausea and gastritis were noted in the pentoxyfilline group in contrast to Spirulina group. Conclusion: Newer drugs Pentoxyfilline and Spirulina showed promising results in treatment of Oral sub mucous fibrosis. Spirulina was used for the first time for treatment of Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and it proved to be superior than pentoxyfilline as no side effects were observed. Also it was superior in reducing burning sensation and hence can be advised in OSMF patients suffering from severe subjective symptoms.

KEYWORDS:

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Pentoxyfilline, Potentially malignant disorder, Spirulina

Clinical Effects of Subgingivally Delivered Spirulina Gel in Chronic Periodontitis Cases: A Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial.

Mahendra J, Mahendra L, Muthu J, John L, Romanos GE.

J Clin Diagn Res. 2013 Oct;7(10):2330-2333. Epub 2013 Oct 5.

PMID:
 
24298522
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 
Free PMC Article
 

Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Spirulina.

Ouhtit A, Ismail MF, Osman A, Fernando A, Abdraboh ME, El-Kott AF, Azab YA, Abdeen SH, Gaur RL, Gupta I, Shanmuganathan S, Al-Farsi YM, Al-Riyami H, Raj MH.

Am J Pathol. 2013 Nov 21. doi:pii: S0002-9440(13)00743-8. 10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.10.025. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
 
24269837
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Autonomous cure of damaged human intestinal epithelial cells by TLR2 and TLR4-dependent production of IL-22 in response to Spirulina polysaccharides.

Tominaga A, Konishi Y, Taguchi T, Fukuoka S, Kawaguchi T, Noda T, Shimizu K.

Int Immunopharmacol. 2013 Oct 12;17(4):1009-1019. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2013.09.023. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
 
24126111
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

1.

Anti-oxidant activity of holo- and apo-c-phycocyanin and their protective effects on human erythrocytes.

Pleonsil P, Soogarun S, Suwanwong Y.

Int J Biol Macromol. 2013 Jun 24. doi:pii: S0141-8130(13)00344-9. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.06.016. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 23806319 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Select item 23768655

2.

Hepatoprotective effect of germanium-containing Spirulina in rats with d-galactosamine- and lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis.

Yoshinari O, Shiojima Y, Igarashi K.

Br J Nutr. 2013 Jun 17:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 23768655 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Related citations

Select item 23762559

3.

Effects of spirulina on cyclophosphamide-induced ovarian toxicity in rats: biochemical and histomorphometric evaluation of the ovary.

Yener NA, Sinanoglu O, Ilter E, Celik A, Sezgin G, Midi A, Deveci U, Aksungar F.

Biochem Res Int. 2013;2013:764262. doi: 10.1155/2013/764262. Epub 2013 May 9.

PMID: 23762559 [PubMed] Free PMC Article

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Select item 23757210

4.

Separation and nanoencapsulation of antitumor polypeptide from Spirulina platensis.

Zhang B, Zhang X.

Biotechnol Prog. 2013 Jun 11. doi: 10.1021/btpr.1769. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 23757210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Select item 23754631

5.

The hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) supplementation in a Cretan population: a prospective study.

Mazokopakis EE, Starakis IK, Papadomanolaki MG, Mavroeidi NG, Ganotakis ES.

J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Jun 10. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6261. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 23754631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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6.

Aliidiomarina sanyensis sp. nov., a hexabromocyclododecane assimilating bacterium from the pool of Spirulina platensis cultivation, Sanya, China.

Wang G, Wu H, Zhang X, Zhang H, Yang X, Tian X, Li J, Xiang W, Li X.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2013 Jun 8. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 23748897 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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7.

Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water.

Choi WY, Kang do H, Lee HY.

Int J Mol Sci. 2013 Jun 6;14(6):12205-21. doi: 10.3390/ijms140612205.

PMID: 23743830 [PubMed] Free Article

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8.

Donepezil-induced response of Spirulina supplemented rat urinary bladder.

Nurullahoglu-Atalik KE, Okudan N, Gokbel H, Nurullahoglu ZU.

Bratisl Lek Listy. 2013;114(6):308-10.

PMID: 23731040 [PubMed - in process]

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9.

Biosorption of phenanthrene by pure algae and field-collected planktons and their fractions.

Zhang D, Ran C, Yang Y, Ran Y.

Chemosphere. 2013 May 25. doi:pii: S0045-6535(13)00666-8. 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.04.068. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 23714149 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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10.

Microalgae associated Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 as the nano particle synthesizing unit to produce antimicrobial silver nanoparticles.

Rajamanickam K, Sudha SS, Francis M, Sowmya T, Rengaramanujam J, Sivalingam P, Prabakar K.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2013 May 3;113C:10-14. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2013.04.083. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 23711394 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Related citations

Spirulina's Phycocyanin verhindert Bluthochdruck

 

Ichimura und seine zehn japanischen Forscherkollegen von der Universität Nagasaki stellten im Mai 2013 ihre neueste Spirulina-Studie vor, die sie über 25 Wochen, leider wieder nur an Ratten, durchführten.


Die Wissenschaftler der ernährungswissenschaftlichen Abteilung fanden ihre Hypothese, dass das Blaupigment von Spirulina (Phycocyanin) eine blutdrucksenkende Wirkung besitzt, bestätigt.


Ist es nicht traurig, dass all diese Beweise über die Wirkungsvielfalt des blaugrünen Mikroorganismus von der konventionellen Medizin einfach ignoriert wird? 

 

 

Phycocyanin prevents hypertension

 

In May 2013, Ichimura and his Japanese colleagues from the University Nagasaki presented their newest Spirulina study which they conducted over 25 weeks, unfortunately, again only on rats.


    The scientists of the Division of Nutritional Science found their hypothesis that Spirulina's blue pigment phycocyanin possesses an anti-hypertensive effect, affirmed.


    Is it not sad that all this proof of the effect variety of the blue-green micro-organism is ignored by the conventional medicine?


    


 

SPIRULINA HILFT BEI DIABETES-2

 

 

Anfang 2013 haben chinesische Forscher an der Pharmazeutischen Universität in Nanjing das anti-diabetische Potential von Spirulinas Phycocyan entdeckt (Ou et al).    

      In meiner fortlaufenden Spirulina-Fragebogen-Studie gaben 17 Personen verbesserte Blutzuckerwerte nach der 4-6wöchigen Einnahme der blaugrünen Mikroalge an.

Ich wünsche mir, dass künftig natürliche Heilmittel mehr am Menschen getestet würden.

Dies wäre für Mensch und Tier ein Segen und würde in jedem Fall das Leiden einschränken.

Mehr unter dem Bericht vom 2. Februar 2013

Durchbruch: Spirulinas Blaupigment als Mittel gegen Diabetes-2 entdeckt 

 

 

In the beginning of 2013 Chinese researchers have discovered the anti-diabetic potential of Spirulina's Phycocyan (Ou et al) at the Pharmaceutical University in Nanjing.

     In my sequential Spirulina questionnaire study, 17 people had improved blood glucose levels after taking Spirulina for 4-6 weeks.  I wish that in the future natural remedies would be tested more on man than on beast. This would be beneficial for humans and animals. It would in each case reduce the suffering.

More about the above study on my report from February 2, 2013.

 

Breakthrough: Spirulina’s blue pigment as a remedy for Diabetes-2 discovered

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 


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